I PRIMI DENTINI: IL SOSTEGNO EMOTIVO DELLA MAMMA E NORME DI COMPORTAMENTO

 

A seguito dell’allattamento, i bambini vengono svezzati ma i dentini sono ancora nella loro primissima fase di sviluppo e si apprestano a spuntare man mano.

Dunque, nonostante la fase dell’allattamento sia stata superata correttamente, i dentini dei bambini hanno ancora molta strada e gli va dedicata la giusta attenzione.

Con la loro crescita, continuano e aumentano i dolori che il bambino sperimenta: per far fronte ai loro fastidi, e spesso per coccolarli e dar loro piacere, accade che si instaurino abitudini che possono danneggiare i denti, quali il fornire il ciuccio per molte ore al giorno e oltre un certo limite di età, che spesso viene dato insieme al miele, e l’assunzione di numerosi altri cibi zuccherini.

Un’altra abitudine che condiziona lo sviluppo dei denti è quella del succhiare il dito, o mettere in bocca numerosi altri oggetti, come giocattoli e coperte.

Oltre – inevitabilmente – alla genetica, sono questi i fattori che possono condizionare lo sviluppo dentale e il dolore dei bambini, concorrendo anche all’eziologia di malesseri psicologici in rapporto ai denti.

Anche qui è importante notare come sia fondamentale la funzione di contenimento materno, che può essere sostegno emotivo sufficiente per il bambino a scapito di abitudini scorrette, quali l’alta necessità di assumere zuccheri e un elevato numero di gesti auto-consolatori come quella di prendere ancora il ciuccio o succhiare il dito.

Occorre prestare attenzione ai segnali che danno queste abitudini rispetto al loro significato, ovvero la richiesta di contatto emotivo da parte del bambino, che spesso utilizza oggetti esterni con una funzione di

conforto psicologico. Spesso essi sono utili allo scopo di separarsi dalla fusione con la mamma, in qualità di “oggetti transizionali” (Winnicott, 1971), ma occorre prestare attenzione all’eccesso di comportamento per preservare il corretto sviluppo della dentizione del bambino.

Il sostegno emotivo della mamma, la sicurezza e il contenimento che il bambino percepisce, e abitudini di comportamento corretto da parte della madre nella fase della prima dentizione, sono quindi la base di uno sviluppo sano sia dei dentini stessi, sia della rappresentazione che ne avrà il bambino.

Ansia e paura del dolore ai denti da grandi, saranno meno invalidanti se nell’allattamento e nello svezzamento i neonati hanno percepito la giusta rassicurazione materna.

Dott.ssa Simona Galietto

Psicologa

BIBLIOGRAFIA

Winnicott D.W (1953). Oggetti transizionali e fenomeni transizionali. In: Dalla Pediatria alla Psicoanalisi

Martinelli , Firenze.

Winnicott D.W (1971). Gioco e realtà . Armando editore, Roma.

SITOGRAFIA https://www.ildentistadeibambini.it/

Il Dentista dei Bambini – Studi Dentistici – Odontoiatria Pediatrica

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